AGATE – Agate consists of silicon dioxide which was sedimented in historical occasions to kind stunning flowing bands of various texture and colours. There are all the time many layers and bands of differenting supplies in all types of designs and colours – in quartz, chalcedony, jasper, or iron oxides – making agate one of the vital intriguing gems for lapidary. Agates of all types have been standard in talismans over the centuries. Lovely specimens of concentric rings are discovered at Winona, Minnesota. Heating agate artificially produces much more spectacular agates. There are lots of completely different sorts of Agates: Moss Agates or Seaweed Agates, Agatized Coral, Loopy-lace Agate, Plume Agate or Scenic Agate, Tree Agates, Onyx Agate, Eye Agate and Rainbow or Iris Agate with its many colours.
AMBER – The title is Arabic but it surely has come to us from the French and in Greek it means 'electrical energy'. Pliny asserted amber because the sap of sure bushes. It’s now confirmed to be the fossil resin of an extinct species of pine tree of the Tertiary interval. . It ceaselessly preserves inside itself plant constructions and bugs. In prehistoric it was used as a talismanic allure in opposition to illness and likewise burnt as incense. It has a electrical electrical property found by Thales, one of many 7 sages of Greece, when it’s subjected to friction on a pure woolen materials to exhibit an electro / magnetic energy. Amber is present in colours from inexperienced to gold and orange, brown and even pink. It’s discovered both clear or opaque in nature with any cloudy look brought on by hospitalized bubbles. Amber was additionally employed as an essence or scent and nonetheless is used as an ingredient in fashionable perfumes. Amber has large distribution in Europe, Sicily and the Adriatic, Australasia, America and Russia, Siberia, Greenland, US, Mexico, Burma and Romania. It’s often washed up on seashores.
AMETHYST – Occidental or True Amethyst is a type of quartz. or coloured Rock crystal contracting of silica. Oriental amethyst is alumina. Others are violone, a silicate of aluminum and lithium. It accommodates iron within the quartz. The deeper the colour, the extra worthwhile – attributable to presence of manganese oxide. Oriental Amethyst or Violet Sapphire is a type of corundum and much like sapphire and ruby. A wonderful pattern is a violet gem weighing 48 carats within the Allison Gem Assortment, Australia One of the best examples come from Siberia, Ceylon, Brazil and Persia however a big one present in a cave of amethyst in Brazil is a big crystal which measures 33 'by 6 'x three'- the biggest ever discovered.
AQUAMARINE – This gemstone is a clear, pale water blue beryl with iron giving it the inexperienced / blue tint, various from pale inexperienced to deep sea inexperienced. It’s reliably cheap and mined in India, Siberia and Brazil, probably the most plentiful supply of aquamarine. This blue inexperienced stone is heated to supply the blue coloration so standard in fashionable jewelery. An impressive instance of 46 carats is within the Allison Australian gem Assortment.
BERYL – Beryl is used as a copper alloy and likewise in development the atomic bomb. Beryl and Aquamarine differ solely in coloration – Beryl is brilliant blue to white and Aquamarine is sea inexperienced to deep inexperienced. Finest identified is the deep inexperienced type of beryl, the dear emerald. The yellow beryl is the heliodor and pink beryl is morganite and there may be additionally an especially uncommon Purple Beryl. Beryl is thought for its big crystals. Madagascar yielded a single crystal weighing almost 40 tons far surpassing the 18-27 foot monster ones beforehand obtained from New England.
BLOODSTONE – Bloodstone is opaque and all the time minimize as a cabochon, or un-faceted stone. It’s quite a lot of inexperienced Jasper with many blood pink specks in its composition. These are shaped by iron oxide with which it’s impregnated. Historic Egyptians extremely valued bloodstone amulets. It was as soon as very fashionable in reducing seals and cameos. Present in India, Siberia and Russia. The Chinese language imagine it produces finest outcomes when set in gold.
CARNELIAN (Cornelian) – This can be a translucent, orangey-red chalcedony generally present in yellowish tones and white, ceaselessly with two mixed. On publicity to the Solar the hues turn into brighter however not in synthetic mild. It’s able to excessive polish which was why it was thought of as the perfect stone to make use of as a seal, in response to Pliny. The clear pink sort of carnelian is called Sard and comes from Arabia, India, New Zealand, Europe, Mesopotamia, Surinam and Siberia. Many historical Etruscan and Egyptian scarabaei have been discovered carved from this stone. Buddhism consists of this in sacred 7 stones -Tibetans name it A-yu and as talisman has occult properties.
CORAL – Coral is shaped by calcium carbonate within the skeletons of colonies of soppy bodied molluscs in tropical waters. It ranges in coloration from the uncommon black, to pink and reddish-orange, the basic "coral" of trend. It is usually present in a blue coloration. The traditional Romans and Greeks used it in ornamentation. Purple, pink, white and blue corals are product of calcium carbonate however black and golden corals are shaped of the attractive substance conchiolin. In all corals the skeletal construction is seen as delicately striped of noticed graining. Purple and pink corals from the Mediterranean. had been standard for hundreds of years and sometimes utilized in rosaries. There was an intensive commerce by Europe into Arabia and to India the place coral was additionally used medicinally. The black and golden corals fished off Hawaii, Australia and West Indies are newer discoveries.
CRYSTAL – Rock Crystal or Frozen Water has all the time been thought of a pure stone and as soon as used as a divining stone and in fashionable fortune telling when the gypsies maintain the custom alive in utilizing a crystal ball, a customized which is alleged to have begun in Persia. The stone is historically related to mystical properties and linked to the moon. It is likely one of the 7 sacred sources of Buddhism. Its crystal has 6 sides and barely is it present in giant items – however the largest quartz crystal ever was in Brazil – it was over 5m lengthy and weighed greater than 48 tonnes! Artificial rock crystal is manufactured in Japan for trade and likewise jewelery.
DIAMOND – Diamond – the attractive and hottest treasured stone consists of pure carbon, the blackest of drugs, which crystallizes within the cubic system at atmospheric pressures and excessive temperatures, generally from depth of 150 km within the earth. Aside from its distinctive flashes of sunshine and coloration from its faceted stone, the diamond has particular properties and is the toughest of all stones. One of the best gem high quality stones are coloured and clear with a barely blue tint however the pink and tinted diamonds have gotten standard additionally. Diamonds are stated to have first been present in India greater than 2000 years in the past. Beforehand in that nation diamonds had been identified however had been by no means minimize as a result of it was believed that it had magical properties had been destroyed by reducing. Slicing in Europe started after 1300 AD. Lasers are actually used to chop diamonds however the one mineral able to reducing a diamond is a diamond. Prime world producers now are northern Australia which provides 1/four of the world's wants – notably for industrial functions and likewise the coloured "champagne diamonds" and within the South African Kimberley area.
EMERALD – Emeralds are inexperienced types of Beryl and the perfect are situated in Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia. Additionally India and Pakistan however the most interesting are stated to come back from Colombia close to Chivor the place they happen in veins inside darkish shales and limestone. The Ural Mountains that are wealthy in emeralds retain the world market. Egypt's emerald mines are over four,000 years previous. Pliny speaks of a colossal emerald statue of Serapis 13 1/2 toes excessive, within the historical Egyptian labyrinth. It was referred to as the "king" of inexperienced stones with extraordinarily excessive worth due to its rarity and the truth that seldom was there gemstone minimize that was with out flaw. The most important identified emerald found was 11,000 carats present in an uncut state in South Africa. The most important minimize stone of high quality was 1,347 carats but it surely had apparent flaws. The most important excellent stone identified was the Tsar of Russia's – 30 carats. The Crown of the Andes made in 1593-99 in South America had 453 emeralds the biggest being of 45 carats. Nevertheless artificial emeralds in fashionable occasions have believable inclusions so testing should be executed fastidiously in figuring out the standard of stone.